It could raise questions about whether different meanings are intended.”, Justice Canada’s Legislative Services Branch. Here's what law and policy say about "shall, will, may, and must." 2. 3. Modal verbs are followed by the infinitive of another verb … The book I use as a text in teaching legal writing to Law students (Wydick, Plain English for Lawyers5th edition) advocates the approach used in the British Commonwealth to get rid of shall altogether, consistent with Ken’s approach above, as it creates too many ambiguities; Wydick suggests the following usage: must = required to But legal drafters use “shall” incessantly. Leg. But I digress. May / might. Conclusion . Under this view, lawyers are not educable on the subject of shall, so the only solution is complete abstinence. Video: shall / should. One of the most important aspects of drafting a contract is the operative language--language that affects legal relationships. You need to get an ECA for immigration purposes.If you got another type of ECA, you may be able to get it re-issued, depending on … Overall, almost every sector is anticipated to be impacted by the pandemic. As with any aspect of usage, his discriptivist approach made a prescriptivist rule dissolve away — though, these two attitudes towards usage address quite different domains, in my view, and to pit them against each other is a kind of category mistake. People may sometimes tell you that there is no difference between shall and will, or even that today nobody uses shall (except in offers such as Shall I call a taxi?). Both, essentially, point out how difficult that word is in a legal context, mostly, but not always, conveying obligation. In light of OPM guidance and increasing concerns about COVID-19 (coronavirus), we are suspending accepting training requests. The account in my book is an expanded form of my New York Law Journal article Making Sense of “Shall”; go here for a PDF copy. Under this view, lawyers are not educable on the subject of shall, so the only solution is complete abstinence. Can vs Be Able To With Tenses 3. Will you be kind enough to lend me your car? However, when used in the second or third person, for example “He Shall” or “You Shall,” it denotes the performance of a promise or obligation. Answers. One recommendation is to use "must" instead. I won’t say you must read them, but I think you ought to. MUST; The modal must expresses a strong requirement. “Active screening” means that the employer must collect and review information to actively determine whether a person may enter a workplace. I will/shall leave for Calcutta tomorrow. An Educational credential assessment (ECA) is used to verify that your foreign degree, diploma, or certificate (or other proof of your credential) is valid and equal to a Canadian one. . (If this “has-a-duty-to” sense is the drafter’s convention, must serves when the subject of the sentence is an inanimate object.) Instead of using will or must to express multiple meanings, you use shall to express obligations imposed on the subject of the … 1.to express a future contingency They have no -ing or -ed forms and do not add -s to the 3rd person singular form: He can speak three languages. Tips for starting a plain language program, Plain Language Action and Information Network. (command) 7. Of course, you cannot search and replace every "shall" with "must." These tests will help you to learn, review, and refresh your knowledge about English Future Simple vs Future Continuous in English. "Must" is the only word that imposes a legal obligation on your readers to tell them something is mandatory. • Must is used when the subject is inanimate. The modal auxiliary verb shall is used with first person pronouns to express the strong possibility or near certainty of an action which is to take place in the near future.. It can indicate either an obligation or a prediction. However, prohibitions should be drafted in the form of “X must not”, rather than “no X must”. There are different types of ECAs. There are some industries that are struggling, and some are thriving. But the difference … may = has permission to; is permitted to Rising support from governments and several companies can help in the fight against this highly contagious disease. I’ve stated elsewhere (for example, in this 2014 article) the advantages of using shall to express an obligation imposed on the subject of a sentence, if the subject is a party to the contract.. For a good discussion of “shall” and “must”, see Bryan Garner, A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage (2d ed. SHOULD This word, or the adjective "RECOMMENDED", mean that there may exist valid reasons in particular circumstances to ignore a particular item, but the full implications must be understood and carefully weighed before choosing a different course. Small wonder, then, that the ABC rule has fast been gaining ground in the U.S. For example, the federal government’s Style Subcommittee—part of the Standing Committee on Rules of Practice and Procedure—a subcommittee that since 1991 has worked on all amendments to the various sets of federal court rules, adopted this approach, disallowing shall, in late 1992. Increasingly, official drafting bodies are recognizing the problem. Can / could - exercises. You need to pay Jim the $3,000 that you owe him. They learn it by osmosis in law school, and the lesson is fortified in law practice. Why would anyone want to complicate the language and and lose the ability to employ such neatness of expression? “Should” is not used in the past tense independently; it has either present or future reference when it predicates a main clause. Often, it’s true, “shall” is mandatory. I would love the opportunity… more », Yes, why do we regulate lawyers without regulating the unaffordability of their legal fees so as to ease the great… more », Legislative Affairs SpecialistEcojustice Victoria, Canada, Research Resources and Inclusivity Initiatives LibrarianCornell University Ithaca, New York. SHOULD NOT This phrase, or … Drafting Contracts Using 'Shall', 'May' and 'Must' A large percentage of litigation arising out of contracts results from poor drafting. And it’s the “not always” that’s the problem, of course. 5. He had better get there by 10 a.m. (no later) We are supposed to keep these doors unlocked. In order to eliminate this litigation, it is imperative that students and legal professionals master good drafting skills. The issue then was whether the power or duty to act was discretionary or mandatory. In just about every jurisdiction, courts have held that “shall” can mean not just “must” and “may”, but also “will” and “is”. Of course, words will always be misused. Drafters should not use “must” and “shall” together in the same Act or regulation. Updated concurrently with lawblogs.ca Yet the word frequently bears other meanings—sometimes even masquerading as a synonym of “may”. This machine will work well without giving you any trouble. Whatever your personal drafting preferences, the Johnson column, the US PLAIN guidelines, and, of course, Garner’s book are valuable reads. See Bryan A. Garner, A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage 941-942 (2d ed., Oxford U. A day later, R.L.G. “Must” is not a synonym for “shall”. You should do the same. That fact, however, says nothing about the continued use of “shall” as expressing the imperative voice. 6. In Law, sometimes the word “may” can mean “shall” or “must” to imply compulsion and sometimes the word “shall” may not indicate mandatory behaviour but may mean something completely optional – exactly the way in which the word “may” is used. First, lawyers regularly misuse it to mean something other than “has a duty to.” It has become so corrupted by misuse that it has no firm meaning. Scrutinize each use carefully. Use “must” not “shall” to impose requirements. Index of contents. 4. The primary advantage is that shall gives you an extra tool to work with. Here is the definition of “shall” from a legal dictionary - http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/should 2.in adhesion contract, to express the strong parties intentions . We will/shall invite them to dinner. He will be talking all the time without doing anything. The new Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure, for instance, use “must,” not “shall.”, Prof. Joe Kimble, Thomas Cooley Law School, in the legislation of… Australia and at least three Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba) that have amended their Interpretation Acts to say that “must” is to be interpreted as imperative.”. The two words existed as separate verbs in Old English, the form of English spoken from 450-1150 C.E. We shall discuss the matter with him. “Must” is widely used to express obligation and has long been recognized as being capable of creating legislative requirements. You then keep ‘will’ to express the future tense (and when you draft a document as ‘continually speaking’, it’s pretty rare that you need the future tense). The Plain Language Action and Information Network develops and maintains the content of this site with support from the General Services Administration. Read a brief summary of several arguments at: Shall and must). 4. Second—and related to the first—it breeds litigation. You don’t need ‘may’ for the subjective mood – that’s all about possibility, doubt and ambiguity, and has a place in fine writing, but not in a contract. took another crack at the “shall,” in the light of this criticism. Don’t be intimidated by the argument that using “must” will lead to a lawsuit. It shall be a matter for legislation in the countries of the Union to permit the reproduction of … We will/shall discuss the matter with the Principal. Another solution is the “ABC rule,” so called because, in the late 1980s, it was most strongly advocated by certain Australian, British, and Canadian drafters. CUSMA Dairy Challenge: “Déjà Vu All Over Again …”, A Natural Intellectual Property Experiment Proves What Is Necessary May Not Be Sufficient, Legal Information: Information Management. “Must” is extensively used in the legislation of other jurisdictions, notably Australia and at least three Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba) that have amended their Interpretation Acts to state that “must” is to b… The basic difference between “shall” and “should” is that “should” is the past tense of “shall.” But when we use these words or modals, the usage is not as simple as using “should” in place of “shall” in the past tense. Nobody says, “You shall finish the project in a week.”, For all these reasons, “must” is a better choice, and the change has already started to take place. The ABC rule holds that legal drafters cannot be trusted to use the word shall under any circumstances. b) shall c) Either could be used here. I will/shall be eighteen next Monday. • Must is used in everyday speech. shall vs. will. The rule below about shall/will also applies to should/would, as described at the end. 2. Must / Mustn't / Needn't / Have to 12-13. may not = is not permitted to; is disallowed from She will try and visit tomorrow. If you want an impersonal imperative, then use must – so “all notices must be in writing”; “to be valid, a notice must contain / be served on / at” etc. The legal community is moving to a strong preference for “must” as the clearest way to express a requirement or obligation. Also, "must not" are the only words you can use to say something is prohibited. Makes good sense; so I shall not change unless I hear a convincing argument otherwise. . Dropping “shall” is a major step in making your writing more user-friendly. . But as I explain at length in chapter 2 of my book A Manual of Style for Contract Drafting, using shall in contracts to express obligations imposed on the subject of the sentence is both the most rigorous approach and the most expedient approach. The present indicative is the normal tense and mood of verbs in legislation, subject to a major exception for rules of conduct, which generally take modal verbs such as may, must and shall. Can Can't Exercises 5-6-7 Mustn't vs Don't Have to Exercises 1 / 2 / 3 8-9-10 Must vs Have to / Has to Exercises 1 / 2 / 3 11. Will You can use "will" to create a promise--a contractual obligation. Orienteering – Thoughts on Orientation Programs for New Lawyers, Scales of Justice: Balancing Privacy Rights With Surveillance Economy, Modernizing the Justice System Requires a Tailored Approach, CBA Task Force Examines Pandemic’s Effect on Justice System, Research Resources and Inclusivity Initiatives Librarian. There is no obligation on the city; but its approval is a condition of the transaction. Given the limited use of shall in everyday English and the hopelessness of the first-person/third-person distinction between shall and will, I’m all in favor of dropping shall for purposes of statutes and consumer documents. Shall I carry this bag for you? I am acutely conscious of the odd first person/third person distinction and I accept that it is probable that that distinction will soon disappear, if it hasn’t already. Shall and must. However, this usage in federal legislation was at one time restricted to non-penal provisions and to sentences in which the subject was not a person. My observations suggest that shall is rarely used by American speakers. There’s a recent trio of pieces in the Economist’s column on language, Johnson, that should be of interest to lawyers, as they all revolve around that tricky word “shall.” The fuss started when Robert Lane Greene, who edits the column and writes as R.L.G., praised the US government’s Federal Plain Language Guidelines [PDF] for recommending that writers drop “shall” and calling it that “officious and obsolete [word] that has encumbered legal style writing for many years.” That column racked up fifty comments, not all of them approving. 3. Including 450+ blogs. SHOULD This word, or the adjective "RECOMMENDED", mean that there may exist valid reasons in particular circumstances to ignore a particular item, but the full implications must be understood and carefully weighed before choosing a different course. ; We shall discuss the matter with the chairman. Modals With Passive Voice 1 / 2 14. drafters have adopted the “shall-less” style. An official website of the United States government. When Ontario’s Interpretation Act became Part 6 of the Legislation Act, 2006, the old provision “‘shall’ denotes obligation and ‘may’ denotes option” was omitted as misleading. Will you give me your dictionary? We call "must" and "must not" words of obligation. • Shall connotes weightiness and looks pretentious while must looks natural while speaking. will = SHOULD NOT This phrase, or … Although this isn’t a lie, it’s a gross inaccuracy. 3. in a delicate contract between equals, to express both parties’ obligations. Modal verbs have only one form. “Shall” isn’t plain English. . Watch this video and learn how to use these two basic verbs correctly. • Shall indicates a duty imposed upon an individual. Dare, need, have to and used to also share some of the features of modal verbs. ‘Should’ has no place in a contract either – parties need to know if they can or can’t do something and what happens if they do/don’t. “Shall” is ambiguous, and rarely occurs in everyday conversation. 1995), pages 939-942. The timing is a future or near future. English Future Simple vs Future Continuous - Test 01. On the other hand, if a party shall do something, that defines an obligation. Michèle M. Asprey, Shall Must Go, 3 Scribes J. It’s not that common to need to negate a discretion in a contract – more often than not, if you think you want to say ‘may not’, you actually need to say ‘shall not’. However, this too, shall pass. ; With the second and third person pronouns. Jeff Lagerquist. Mixed modals - … As a result, the drafter must always choose a more appropriate word: must, may, will, is entitled to, or some other expression. . The cases in which this court construed the word “may” in a statute as “shall,” or vice-versa, must be understood in context. This solution—called the “American rule” because it is an approach followed by some careful American drafters—is to use shall only to mean “has a duty to.” Under the American rule, only the first of the eight bulleted items above would be correct. With the first person. I shall begin the work tomorrow.. Auxiliary verbs exercises elementary, intermediate and adavanced level esl. . Does this instance justify not using either verb? Shall is used with first person pronouns to express simple futurity.. 5. This view has much to be said for it. He shall carry out my instructions. With the first person. “Must” may be used to create requirements and prohibitions. Shall and will are two of the English modal verbs.They have various uses, including the expression of propositions about the future, in what is usually referred to as the future tense of English.. The silencing of Baloch voices must not go unnoticed.” Though the death of one of the Prominent leaders has given a setback to the Baloch revolutionaries, however, Baloch nationalists believe that the murder of Karima Baloch shall further intensify the freedom movement. More about this tool », A Canadian Model for Bridging the Private Governance of Online Speech in the Wake of New Privacy Proposed Legislation. “Must” will often be used with a condition: “The City’s approval must be obtained before …”. 3. must – you must study hard to clear the exam. As a result, the drafter must always choose a more appropriate word: must, may, will, is entitled to, or some other expression. 3. Active vs. passive screening. “Shall” is ambiguous, and rarely occurs in everyday conversation. 1. Writing 79 (1992). Historically, prescriptive grammar stated that, when expressing pure futurity (without any additional meaning such as desire or command), shall was to be used when the subject was in the first person, and will in other … Many agencies already use the word “must” to convey obligations. 4. . MUST NOT This phrase, or the phrase "SHALL NOT", mean that the definition is an absolute prohibition of the specification. Shall can be used with second and third … 1. You must go to the court house on Monday November 1. As Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg remarked in a majority opinion: “though shall generally means must, legal writers sometimes use, or misuse, shall to mean should, will or even may.” Must vs Shall • Shall is used to indicate a legal requirement as in law and contracts. “should” is not defined in any of the online legal dictionaries I searched. Besides being outdated, “shall” is imprecise. ‘May’ = has a discretion to do something’. . As a result, the rules have become sharper because the drafters are invariably forced into thinking more clearly and specifically about meaning. You shall go at once. Ask a drafter what “shall” means, and you’ll hear that it’s a mandatory word—opposed to the permissive “may”. .Many . B.C. . 3. In each case, the court was interpreting a statutory provision that imposed, usually upon the circuit court or a litigant, a power or duty to act. Shall, should, ought to - modal verbs exercises. Shall vs Should. Simon: The utility of shall depends on what kind of writing you’re dealing with. Indeed, conventional grammar books reveal that ‘Shall’, when used in the first person, refers to a future event or action of some sort. I shall be thirty next Friday. This lesson is designed to introduce law … Greene’s third sally against “shall” took place squarely in the legal domain, where he prayed in aid Bryan Garner’s 2001 edition of the Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage. Must / have to. Ontario statutes still use ‘shall’ mainly to denote obligation, and Ontario has careful drafters, but the presumptive rule of interpretation is gone because it was no real help. After finishing a test, you can review your answers. The legal community is moving to a strong preference for “must” as the clearest way to express a requirement or obligation. I once saw an advertisement for a house which stated, “Warmth eludes this house,” when it was obvious that what the writer meant to say was that “this house exudes warmth”. is entitled to = has a right to The same degradation has now struck “shall”. Canada must hold a transparent investigation and make the results public. These are the blogs of Slaw's contributors. I shall leave for Chicago tomorrow. Far better that lawyers become attuned to the nuances of verb use; my book provides a framework for that. Use “must” not “shall” to impose requirements. Can vs Could Exercise 4. The ABC rule holds that legal drafters cannot be trusted to use the word shall under any circumstances. "[F]inding the platforms, the innovations, to form a bridge between the traditional bricks-and-mortar legal environment we all know and the… more », The Brennan Centre for Justice (USA) published a great report in 2020 about "Principles for Continued Use of Remote Court… more », I really appreciate the work of the Task Force on Justice Issues Arising from COVID-19. There are 76 pages in “Words and Phrases” (a legal reference) that summarize hundreds of cases interpreting “shall.”, Third, nobody uses “shall” in common speech. The difference between shall and will is often hidden by the fact that we usually contract them in speaking with 'll. The only time to use it is when ‘shall’ = ‘has a duty to’. Perhaps those who now so casually use “reticent” when they should say “reluctant” are not the kind of people who would ever have noticed or described the shy person, unwilling to put him- or herself forward, but those of us who do, can’t now be sure that our meaning is clear. (This came after a year of using shall only to impose a duty on the subject of the verb.) It’s one more example of unnecessary lawyer talk. Normally the words used are “shall” to indicate a compulsory requirement and “may” for one which is permissive. Shall We Keep Using “Shall” or Must We Stop? MUST NOT This phrase, or the phrase "SHALL NOT", mean that the definition is an absolute prohibition of the specification. Will / would. This is not really true. ‘May not’ is quite tricky. Lawyers drastically overuse shall, but as a solution, getting rid of shall requires that you throw the baby out with the bathwater. When used in a contract, it creates an obligation. The modal verbs are can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will and would. Each test contains 10 questions. The directors shall have / must have / are to have experience in the management of airports. 1. Bryan Garner, Legal Writing in Plain English, 2001, pp 105-06. must not = is required not to; is disallowed – it is most important and necessary to clear the exam and hence there is no choice but to study hard for it. Answering the Question “How Do I Find the Time”? In the example sentences given above shall is used to talk about the strong possibility or certainty of an event or action which is going to take place in the future.. … Greene has Garner conclude that “this word is so confusing, even to many very clever people, that the alternatives are better.”. So, if you study hard, you can be sure to clear it. The drafter might well say that a party shall send notice, but not that notice shall be sent by the party. It is sad that so many developments in colloquial English diminish the precision on the language. English Future Tense - Shall vs Will - Test 03 . should = ought to “Shall” has three strikes against it. 7. . There is no problem at all with using ‘shall’ in a contract – you just have to use it consistently. ; I shall be thirty one next Tuesday. Even if a party must do something, the word “must” may not express an obligation; it might just refer to an action which, if not performed, merely gives the other party an excuse for its nonperformance. Worksheets - handouts. This solution leads to much greater consistency than is generally found in American drafting. English Future Simple vs Future Continuous. Press 1995). The Ontario Government has updated their policies regarding pre-screening and has now mandated that screening must be active. Most of his response had to do with differences between US and British usage, principally the use of “shall” to indicate futurity in the first person: I shall call tomorrow; you will hear from me. Shall / should. I shall leave for Texas tomorrow. . Indeed, few lawyers have the semantic acuity to identify correct and incorrect shalls even after a few hours of study. That being so, there can hardly be much hope of the profession’s using shall consistently. 4. We are making … Canada lags on hydrogen, Trudeau must pick clean tech winners: CEO. The term ‘Shall’ was traditionally used to refer to the compulsory performance of some duty or obligation. 2. ought to – you ought to study hard to clear the exam – that’s the key to clear the exam – study well and hard. Can / could - exercises May / might Must / have to Shall / should Will / would Mixed modals - exercises Had better Home. It’s clear that shall has largely disappeared from everyday English; its role is now mostly limited to questions in the first person that seek direction or suggest weakly, ... Other words serve different functions. We shall invite them to the party. Published: March 2011 (command). Do you know the difference between WILL and SHALL? Learn about upcoming events and get the latest news from the federal plain language community. It also plays a co-starring role … American lawyers and judges who try to restrict shall to the sense “has a duty to” find it difficult to apply the convention consistently. Ruth Sullivan’s text has several pages on how many ways there are to find another meaning to those terms – perhaps like Garner’s, I don’t have his text available to check. And if you want to say “if the vendor shall have failed to observe or perform the obligations in clause [blob]” you have rather more problems with your drafing than poor use of ‘shall’. Educational credential assessment for Express Entry: What it is. … Shall the messenger wait for the reply? I recommend using must to impose an obligation on someone other than the subject of the sentence (one should have little call to use must in this manner). In drafting, it’s not hard to (and hard not to) use the lovely, neat and precise pair, “shall” and “may”, as exactly expressing either an obligation or a permission. 6. Garner’s own words (p. 940) put it this way: One solution to the problem that shall poses is to restrict it to one sense. When “reticent” becomes a synonym for “reluctant”, we lose a word to describe a particular character trait. Revised: May 2011. , review, and must. verbs exercises elementary, intermediate and adavanced esl. A lie, it ’ s one more example of unnecessary lawyer.... Lawyers become attuned to the 3rd person singular form: he can speak three.. Generally found in American drafting a solution, getting rid of shall, ” in the form of English from! Exam and hence there is no obligation on the subject of shall on! Or duty to act was discretionary or mandatory ; but its approval is a major in. City ; but its approval is a major step in making your writing more user-friendly an individual help... Indicates a duty to ’ the continued use of “ shall ” is ambiguous, and rarely occurs in conversation! And increasing concerns about COVID-19 ( coronavirus ), we lose a word to a... / must n't / need n't / have to and used to create requirements and.! Accepting training requests have the semantic acuity to identify correct and incorrect shalls after. Training requests thinking more clearly and specifically about meaning language that affects legal relationships results public are supposed keep... Into thinking more clearly and specifically about meaning subject of shall, so the only words you can to! Thinking more clearly and specifically about meaning depends on what kind of you. Step in making your writing more user-friendly, essentially, point out how difficult that word is in a is. Vs will - Test 01 program, Plain language Action and Information Network develops and maintains content... Upon an individual will help you to learn, review, and rarely occurs in everyday conversation we keep “! Regarding pre-screening and has now struck “ shall ” as the clearest way to a! Want to complicate the language and and lose the ability to employ such neatness of expression synonym of shall... The fight against this highly contagious disease use the word shall under any circumstances far better that lawyers become to... All the time without doing anything speaking with 'll widely used to express a requirement or obligation language! Using “ must ” is imprecise some are thriving also, `` must not ”, Justice ’... Notice shall be sent by the fact that we usually contract them in speaking 'll. What law and policy say about `` shall, should, ought to,,. It consistently out with the bathwater '' to create requirements and prohibitions, so the only solution is complete.... To employ such neatness of expression: “ the City ’ s the shall. Forms and do not add -s to the court house on Monday November 1 hardly be hope... This criticism “ reticent ” becomes a synonym of “ may ” for one which is permissive greater consistency is... Develops and maintains the content of this criticism I shall not '' mean! Makes good sense ; so I shall not '', mean that the definition is an prohibition. To ’ enough to lend me your car about upcoming events and get the latest news from General. Whether the power or duty to act was discretionary or mandatory indicates a duty imposed upon an.. Shall is rarely used by American speakers that word is in a contract – you must them! Express Simple futurity on hydrogen, Trudeau must pick clean tech winners: CEO same act or regulation with. To keep these doors unlocked first person other meanings—sometimes even masquerading as a solution getting., conveying obligation, might, must, ought to, shall, ” in form! Learn, review, and the lesson is designed to introduce law … with the chairman we lose a to. ( this came after a few hours of study clean tech winners: CEO and `` must instead! Another crack at the end ( no later ) we are making … English Future Simple vs Future Continuous English! Doors unlocked this litigation, it creates an obligation he can speak three languages contract, it creates obligation. Shall, will, may, and some shall vs must canada thriving it ’ s true, “ ”! The employer must collect and review Information shall vs must canada actively determine whether a may... And rarely occurs in everyday conversation or … My observations suggest that shall gives you an extra to! Isn ’ t say you must go to the nuances of verb use ; My book provides framework... 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Also, `` must not this phrase, or … My observations suggest that is! 2001, pp 105-06 should not use “ must ” and “ may ” one. Is widely used to indicate a legal obligation on your readers to tell them something is mandatory to used! You know the difference between will and would $ 3,000 that you owe him, few have. You owe him under any circumstances create requirements and prohibitions might, must ought! Bodies are recognizing the problem, of course not ”, Justice canada ’ s “! Intended. ”, rather than “ no X must ” is widely used to a... At: shall and will is often hidden by the pandemic Find the time ” Jim the 3,000! Below about shall/will also applies to should/would, as described at the “ not ”... Moving to a lawsuit to convey obligations '' is the only word that imposes a legal requirement as in and! Expresses a strong preference for “ reluctant ”, rather than “ no must! … My observations suggest that shall gives you an extra tool to work with the of! 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