Clapham A. If sufficiently homogenous, this picture can easily be used to differentiate local vs. extraneous textiles. ... 180o backflip RH factor is what is in the Bible referred to as the serpent seed. Valencia, Universitat de València : 67-72. Hofman Was it a local or a borrowed term? L (Ed. Biological Theory 12(4): 248-261. Cham, Springer International Publishing : 380-426. (cotton) and animal wool as non-pollen palynomorphs in the late Bronze Age burials of Saphar-Kharaba, southern Georgia. Journal of African Archaeology. 10 First developed by prehistorians, this approach has had a great importance in the development of textile studies. We must be particularly vigilant about the chronological attribution, when the context of discoveries is unclear and/or only based on relative dates, and develop systematic and direct radiocarbon dating of both seeds and textiles (Bouchaud et al. In our country, it lives several years during which it supplies cotton”, According to Abū' l-Khayr and others, cotton is grown in watered and unwatered soil. 1990 – Fibre Damage in Archaeological Textiles. State-of-the-art and current research, http://journals.openedition.org/ethnoecologie/docannexe/image/4501/img-1.jpg, http://journals.openedition.org/ethnoecologie/docannexe/image/4501/img-2.jpg, http://journals.openedition.org/ethnoecologie/docannexe/image/4501/img-3.jpg, http://journals.openedition.org/ethnoecologie/docannexe/image/4501/img-4.jpg, http://journals.openedition.org/ethnoecologie/docannexe/image/4501/img-5.jpg, http://journals.openedition.org/ethnoecologie/docannexe/image/4501/img-6.jpg, http://journals.openedition.org/ethnoecologie/docannexe/image/4501/img-7.jpg, http://journals.openedition.org/ethnoecologie/docannexe/image/4501/img-8.jpg, http://journals.openedition.org/ethnoecologie/docannexe/image/4501/img-9.jpg, http://journals.openedition.org/ethnoecologie/docannexe/image/4501/img-10.jpg, http://journals.openedition.org/ethnoecologie/docannexe/image/4501/img-11.jpg, http://journals.openedition.org/ethnoecologie/docannexe/image/4501/img-12.jpg, licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International, De 1921 à 2000 : les numéros anciens sur Persée, Nos collègues ethnobiologistes dans le monde, Catalogue des 552 revues. Vienna, Verein der Förderer der Sudanforschun : 33-60. . Regardless of the method used for retrieving fibres, spinning is needed to turn fibre bundles into spun yarns. (Ed. in a different place). A growing number of studies are today exploring the potential of this plentiful material (e.g. In sum: spin direction can be a useful tool in the argument about textile origins, but must be applied with great caution and only when the wider context is well known. In : Zach M. S Indigo (Indigofera tinctoria) has been identified as a pigment in frescoes at the Mycenaean site of Thebes (Brysbaert and Vandenabeele, 2004). Piecing together ancient diet is, of course, closely connected to the study of botanical remains. Hershkovitz G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics 3 (10) : 1809-1818. More intriguing are the depictions of imaginary plants (Box 2). Only the comparison of costume imagery with a well-known body of preserved archaeological textiles can allow the formulation of such hypothesis (Figure 11). K The characteristics of the S-spun cottons at Berenike, leaving spin direction aside, do not enable us to make a clear choice at present. The oracle of Apollo at Delphi made pronouncements via a priestess who sat upon a tripod in a trance, the cause of which has been much debated. To date, only one study has been conducted on the ancient DNA of Old World cottons. Charlène Bouchaud expresses her gratitude to the Fyssen foundation for awarding her a research grant and the GDRI ATOM "Ancient Textiles from the Orient to the Mediterranean" to finance this project, and thanks Michel Lemoine for his much-valued technical support on the SEM photographs. 2Today, cotton (Gossypium sp.) Add honey, wine, stock, vinegar, olive oil, and boiled wine. Gradel C., Letellin-Willmein F. & Tallet G. 2012 – "Une laine bien plus douce que celle des moutons" à El-Deir (oasis de Kharga, Égypte) : le coton au cœur de l'économie oasienne à l'époque romaine. They can be ordered according to production stage: the spinning tools (spindles and spindle whorls), the weaving tools (parts of loom, loom weights and spools, shuttles and bobbins, weft beaters and weaving combs, weaving picks…), and the sewing tools (needles, picks, thimbles). In general, we consider that natural textile fibres such as cotton disappear in only 3 weeks if buried in a biologically active soil, at a temperature of 20°C or more (Cooke 1990: 5). Livingstone R. 2007 – The textiles from Kellis, a Roman-period village in Egypt. Figure 4: Gossypium arboreum, Las Chapatales (Sevilla), Spain. Many other implements however, especially spindle whorls and loom weights, are common finds during excavations. Charring can enhance the visibility of these radially elongated cells and allow the identification of broken archaeological specimens, although confusion with baobab seed coat fragments is possible in regions where both species exist, . According to his classification, woven textiles are “flexible solids” created by two sheds of parallel threads kept in tension by a frame and/or suspension (Leroi Gourhan 1971: 19, 269). The longest constitutes the lint, which can be easily pulled off at maturity to be spun into threads. Egyptian temple gardens provided offerings for the deity of the temple, such as lettuces (Lactuca sativa) for Min, the god of fertility, the milky sap reminiscent of semen (Day, 2010). Belin, Paris. 11 About the integration of textile production into its wider cultural milieu and its greater implication in the understanding of past societies, see Andersson Strand et al. They include both annual and perennial varieties, in shrub or tree forms (, , growing in tropical regions – where rainfed cultivation is practiced – and sub-tropical varieties where irrigation may be essential. Olofsson I., Andersson Strand E. & Nosch M.-L. 2015 – Experimental testing of Bronze Age textile tools. par analyses morphologique et morphométrique des graines. However, in climates unfavourable to the conservation of organic material, they can form the only available data and present rich information. Williams Although flowers are poorly represented in typical archaeobotanical assemblages, literary sources can fill out the picture of their uses in antiquity to a much greater degree. & Allaby R.G. Can cotton spinning in itself indicate the provenance of a textile? Orsenna 2006: 11-12, 17, English translation proposed by the authors. All these questions must be addressed to truly assess the significance of a given text in the global history of cotton. The debate over the spin-direction of cotton textiles and their alleged origin is a case in point. . . Benson L.V. De Fenoyl R. This seasonality differentiates cotton from the plants commonly grown in these regions since the Neolithic, such as wheat, barley, and flax, which grow in winter or spring and are harvested in early summer, . Watrous et al., 2004). Archaeological and historical evidence allow us to have an increasingly accurate view of the various areas of cotton production in the ancient world. Hepper & Udall J.A. A hand-help microscope with low magnification (such as a Dino-Lite with 20x – 220x magnification) can usefully supplement these preliminary observations and help in perceiving the diagnostic features of cotton fibres. 1971 – Cotton seeds from the Neolithic in Egyptian Nubia and the origin of Old World cotton. For an in-depth analysis of the textile chaîne opératoire, see Andersson Strand 2012. (Ed.) This scientific method is based on the fact that the nature and the age of the geological substrate largely influence the isotopic ratio of strontium (87Sr/86Sr) in plants, herbivores and humans consuming animals and plant products. T Even with preserved polychromy, the sole use of a white colour cannot suffice to ascertain the material used for the manufacture of a represented fabric. “Walking by, a man notices a shrub, which branches end with white flakes. Oxford & Philadelphia, Oxbow books : 51-81. For now, the information brought by textile implements can only participate in the characterisation of the textile chaîne opératoire in general, and need to be cross-referenced with contemporary cotton finds from the same region. 2017 – Perspectives on the wide world of luxury in later Antiquity: silk and other exotic textiles found in Syria and Egypt. ), Cotton: Origin, History, Technology and Production. Cotton fibres are formed by a relatively large and empty lumen, with thin cell walls. Oxford and Philadelphia, Oxbow books : 1-33. (Ed. Association with certain plants could bring fame and fortune to places, most famously in the case of silphium. Any given plant absorbs these isotopic elements from the substrate while growing, and their ratio is preserved in archaeological remains. P . & Somma L. Cardon D., Granger-Taylor H. & Nowik W. 2011 – What did they look like? In its modern sense it has come to mean the scientific recovery and systematic study of the material remains of ancient human cultures of prehistoric and historic date. ), and capper tree (Capparis decidua), are over-represented and tend to mask potentially secondary woody resources (Madâ’in Sâlih, Saudi Arabia: Bouchaud et al. 4 The Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period 3/1 16 vii 17-21; 17 vii 53-57, in Grayson & Novotny 2012: 121, 143. 1 – Les Fouilles et le Matériel, FIFAO 64. Stone press weights and press beds are the main remains identified through archaeological fieldwork, again complemented by a range of images on ceramics (Foxhall, 2007). Seeds can be considered as waste products of fibre processing, discarded directly after ginning in dumps (uncharred seeds) or fireplaces (charred seeds). D While opium was generally used for analgesic and sedative purposes, other plant extracts were put to more nefarious uses. Was cotton used for specific garments and occasions? Cao Q., Zhu S., Pan N., Zhu Y. Following Elizabeth Barber and her pioneering Prehistoric Textiles, the morphology and weight of spindle whorls have been recognised as two important parameters influencing thread production (Barber 1992: 51-52). The characteristics of the S-spun cottons at Berenike, leaving spin direction aside, do not enable us to make a clear choice at present. In : Berthier S. For a visual rendition and critical discussion, see Harlow & Nosch 2014. S By combining and comparing these multidisciplinary results, it becomes possible to then address larger interdisciplinary issues relating to the origin of cotton production and artefacts, or to their economic and social meaning. . Gilbertson Bouchaud C., Clapham A., Newton C., Tallet G. & Thanheiser U. in prep.). . The Arjan Tomb: At the Crossroads of the Elamite and Persian Empires. The continuation of our efforts will no doubt bring more results, deepening our understanding of cotton weaving techniques, widening our view of cotton use through the Old World, and unveiling interesting exchange and trading patterns. Above: the main cotton production centres with date of first attestation, based on the archaeobotanical, textile, and textual data. We should therefore consider the greater diversity of cotton growing conditions, which was already illustrated during the 12th century CE by Ibn al-'Awwām's description of cotton cultivation in southern Spain: “Suivant Abou’l-Khaïr et autres, on cultive le coton en terrain arrosé et en terrain qui ne l’est pas. In Egypt, too, the opium poppy was known, and apart from featuring in medical texts like the Ebers Papyrus, where it was called ‘Spn’ (Rosso, 2010), poppy iconography was also popular. For clarity’s sake twist direction is designated by letters, either Z or S: the central stroke of the letter corresponds to the direction in which the fibres making up the yarn have been twisted (Figure 10). Ballard-Drooker P. 2001 – Material Culture and Perishability. . Some 24 species are represented in the underground room at Livia’s villa at Prima Porta (Caneva and Bohuny, 2003), and have been interpreted as particularly symbolic of the Augustan era of first-century ad Rome (Kellum, 1994). Close this message to … 19 For the basics of textiles analyses and recording, see Andersson Strand et al. Part 1. Figure 5: Warp-weighted loom (A) and two-beam loom (B), presumably used to weave cotton in the areas under study. Gleba 2008). 15Along this process, several of the products created by the cotton textile chaîne opératoire could potentially be exchanged or traded, and therefore integrate another industry (e.g. Carried out by hand until modern times, ginning aims to release the fibres from the seeds, by rolling a cylinder or a wooden stick on the bolls. In the western Roman provinces, for example, where Z-spin was the standard, Z-spun warp was often combined in diamond twill wool fabrics with S-spun weft because the opposing spin directions enabled the yarns to interlock more firmly (Cork. Livingstone R. 2009 – Late antique household textiles from the village of Kellis in the Dakhleh Oasis. Kvavadze E., Narimanishvili G. & Bitadze G. 2010 – Fibres of. & Gillis C. The longest constitutes the lint, which can be easily pulled off at maturity to be spun into threads. This would also have been an appropriate substance for use in worshipping Demeter, often depicted with ears of grain in her hand, underlining her role as goddess of cereals. Schultes . (Ed. 2003 – Polyploidy and the evolutionary history of cotton. Bryant Brun . European Journal of Archaeology 13 (2) : 149-173. . Z-twist can also be described as ‘right-hand’ or ‘clockwise’ twist, S-twist as ‘left-hand’ or ‘anticlockwise’ twist. Although the Greeks did not use spices to the same extreme as occurred in later Roman recipes, exotic flavours were still much sought after, and myths frequently surrounded their origins. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton, Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models 3, La Persia e l’Asia Centrale Da Alessandro al X Secolo (Roma, 9-12 Novembre 1994). & Williams D.E. 1997 – Cotton (Gossypium) plant residue for industrial fuel: An economic assessment. 2014 – Provenance studies of ancient textiles, a new method based on the strontium isotope system. Most often made of wood and so long decayed, ancient looms are difficult to locate in the archaeological record. The Excavations at Dura-Europos. Approche exploratoire et applications archéologiques. 2015: 75-87). 1 “Walking by, a man notices a shrub, which branches end with white flakes. Hemlock was, of course, the drug that Socrates chose to end his life, as described by Plato (Bloch, 2001). From the 2, mill. Unfortunately, we do not have any clear evidence of their use in the past. There is now strong circumstantial evidence that a community of Indian sailors, engaged in the brisk Indian Ocean trade between the Roman Empire and India, was resident at Berenike (Cappers 2006: 111-117, 216, 225, fig. Merrillees When and where did it appear? . ), Tools, Textiles and Contexts : 75-100. Hunt . (Ancient Textiles Series ; 19). Furthermore, cotton wood anatomy is well known and could be easily identified (Bouchaud et al. Without a doubt because it is only made of threads and ties, and of the shuttle’s journey.”. . Bull Launched today, the video was commissioned by Fotomuseum Winterthur as part of their cluster Situations/Strike.Below the introduction text and the video! Ancient Textiles. The locations of the fields from which the Philistine city of Ashkelon imported wheat has been suggested based on a comparison of the ancient weed seeds with vegetation zones; moreover, the presence of young capsules of white-flowered toadflax (Linaria chalapensis) is interpreted as indicating the farmers’ early harvest of crops before the arrival of the approaching Babylonian army (Weiss and Kislev, 2004). Rome, Instituto italiano per il medio ed estremo oriente : 205-227. is an eloquent symbol of modern globalisation, conjuring images of both a soft sweater and social and environmental disasters. C – in order to highlight the recent research, its current issues and future challenges. For this reason, palynology is generally used by archaeologists to look at vegetation on a regional level rather than providing site-specific information. After spinning, cotton threads can be left in their natural state or dyed. Milon J. During the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, archaeology fell under the broad umbrella of natural sciences, and by the start of the twentieth century, botanists, geologists, and zoologists were working with archaeologists to research a shared interest in the past (Wilkinson and Stevens, 2008). In our opinion, this approach is ill suited to cotton, as cotton fibres act similarly as short-staple wool. Another ancient ritual that may have employed psychotropic plants was the Eleusinian Mysteries. Kvavadze E., Narimanishvili G. & Bitadze G. 2010 – Fibres of Linum (flax), Gossypium (cotton) and animal wool as non-pollen palynomorphs in the late Bronze Age burials of Saphar-Kharaba, southern Georgia. The Catalogue. Through their narrative, modern researchers can grasp the feeling of wearing a specific garment, the way it moved through space or its tactile and emotional perception (Barber 2007, Harlow & Nosch 2014: 12, 22). C the olive, Margaritis and Jones, 2008). 2016 – Fibres. 2018). (Center for Archaeological Investigations Occasional Paper ; 28). Drawings of Linear B tablets from Knossos showing saffron. Charlène Bouchaud and Vladimir Dabrowski (AASPE-UMR 7209, MNHN-CNRS) organised this meeting with fi, For language convenience, we use the term “Old World” to refer to Asia, Africa and Europe, in contr, sp.) M Cotton fibres are formed by a relatively large and empty lumen, with thin cell walls. (Ed. Photo: J. London: Macmillan, pl. 7 “In Hejaz, Egypt, Ascalon, Basra (…) it reaches the proportions of a fig tree. walnuts (Juglans regia) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum)] and this wider availability is mirrored by their appearance in a wider range of civilian archaeological contexts as luxuries became daily foodstuffs (Bakels and Jacomet, 2003). : Alfaro C., Tellenbach M. & Ortiz J. . . P Alvarez-Mon J. 2014 – Provenance studies of ancient textiles, a new method based on the strontium isotope system. ), Le Changement dans les Économies Antiques. Although a dye works has been identified at Rachi, near Isthmia in Greece (Kardara, 1961), and plentiful loom weights and spindle whorls attest to textile production at numerous sites across the ancient world, the dyes themselves remain elusive. (Collection FAO, Production végétale et protection des plantes ; 29). 29If sufficiently homogenous, this picture can easily be used to differentiate local vs. extraneous textiles. Bouchaud C., Clapham A., Newton C., Tallet G. & Thanheiser U. Behind the apparent unity of the term "cotton" lie complex trajectories, involving four species domesticated at different times and in different parts of the world. Funerary stela of Meroitic lady and her son (?) the mysterious seed powerful secrets of financial increase Nov 26, 2020 Posted By William Shakespeare Library TEXT ID a587e52e Online PDF Ebook Epub Library mushroom hump mushroom this seed can then be placed on your farm but you must be artisan 1 in farming to tend to the mysterious seed or harvest breed it mysterious Archaeology is more often associated with the discovery of tombs, temples, and palaces than with plants. The Palace of Minos at Knossos, vol. Walshaw S.C. 2010 – Converting to rice: urbanization, Islamization and crops on Pemba Island, Tanzania, AD 700–1500. Efstratiou In : Cuvigny H. Roman latrines are an excellent source of mineralized plant remains; at Sagalassos in Turkey, complex depositional processes have led to a combination of charred plant material with mineralized seeds in fifth–seventh-century ad latrine deposits, including fig (Ficus carica), plum (Prunus sp. 2007 – Medieval cotton and wheat finds in the Middle Niger Delta (Mali). BCE onwards, several Greek texts indicate that Indian cotton was known and traded in the Mediterranean, suggesting its introduction at Bahrain (Persian Gulf), . 1992 – Prehistoric Textiles. The field represents an archaeological-palaeoecological approach to studying the palaeoenvironment through the methods of human palaeoecology. Possibilities and limitations of secondary sources, Conclusion: Cotton production in the Old World. In : Guédon S. In : Zurbach J., Lerouxel F. T. he large number of written references mentioning "trees" or "shrubs" in different places and times shows that ancient cotton had to be widely cultivated as a perennial (able to produce such a large growing shape) rather than as an annual plant (which looks like a tall plant, or a shrublet/bush). This course is designed to develop your skills of analysis, assessment and interpretation, as well as the production of written and oral reports. They lead to the creation of widely different textiles, used for clothing, furnishing, accessories or utilitarian uses. Jay is professor of landscape pedology, with research involving the disciplines of soil science, geomorphology, art and Eshed Vestidos, textiles y tintes: estudios sobre la producción de bienes de consumo en la Antiguedad: actas del II symposium internacional sobre textiles y tintes del Mediterráneo en el mundo antiguo. 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In Italy, it was woven as seed theory archaeology are harder to Press than grapes, the situation is far clear-cut! 2016 are we missing the `` sweet spot '' between optimality theory and hypothesis Testing in archaeology:... tests. Fuzz ” ) still attached been recognised as two important parameters influencing thread production ( Barber 1992 and Los,... Coming together in person, but in hygiene and for lamps SB 6.9025, and...